Australian Synchrotron Visit

 Under the microlense of Biomechanics  


In Melbourne this week members of the Centre had the pleasure of visiting the Australian Synchrotron. The construction is beneficial to many research fields its ability to devolve high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) structures at high spatial resolution 100 to 5000 nanometres. This is incredibly relevant to biomechanics with the detail being able to replicate imaging of bone tissue using the new Micro MCT beam-line. 

This is achieved through an innovative software that uses monochromatic, pink, and white X-ray beams that have a larger range data collection method including a comparison of samples that change as a function of temperature, pressure, and strain, these are important indications with situ investigation of bone response under load conditions and tensile testing.  

This and its higher accuracy for quantitative processing can be utilised across many of the centre’s programs, with data and sample image quality often a constraint of research when training programs, and mapping biomechanics markers. This can improve other overall research output’s accuracy of models and extend research into directions previously impossible.  

Thanks to the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) for advocating for the new Micro MCT beam-line under Project Bright. 

This is an incredible advancement for Australia and the centres’ research, with thanks to Prof Peter Pivonka forging ahead with this opportunity for the centre in association with Assoc. Prof Andrew Kingston from The Australian National University (ANU), Dr Levi Beeching (ANU), Dr Rita Hardiman from the University of Melbourne, and centre affiliate PhD student Mr Alexander Lee-Medland. 

Seed Grant Project Update 

Centre Programs Collaborate for Translational Research Success 

Last year Dr Bart Bolsterlee and Dr Dermot O’Rourke were awarded funding for the seed grant project to advance the field of Biomechanics. The opportunity was provided to develop confidence and proof-of-concept of novel biomechanical approaches to transform capabilities of Australia in the medtech/orthopaedic industry.  

Dr Dermot O’Rourke was awarded a grant to investigate his project ‘Toward Precision Tracking of The Shoulder Joint Using Ultrasound Tomography,’ with his team of Dr Max Lavaill, Ahmed Sewify, Prof Davide Fontanarosa, Prof Glen Lichtwark, A/Prof Saulo Martelli. 

This project aims to establish a protocol for the measurement of humerus and scapular position with a US tomography and determine the accuracy of the Ultrasound based system bone positions in motion capture systems when the body is in a static position. If this can be confirmed by the research of the team it provides a better option for gathering data than current best practices of kinematics valuable for assessment, which is expensive, exposes participants to ionising radiation and has high skin mounted marker errors. With US tomography being safe and non-invasive, visualises underlying bone. The long-term clinical impact allows for a reliable reproduction of captured Bone motion for studying Joint stability, joint reconstruction methods, and implant testing during movements of daily activities. This can provide more personalised patient care through less invasive techniques.  

The findings to date are promising with accurate bone position using VICON tracking and future research into Investigating ultrasound reconstruction error, positions of elevation and replicability of results across trials.  

This has been a collaborative effort with surgical fellow Dr Helen Ingoe helping to run an experimental protocol which combines 3D ultrasound imaging, optical motion capture and cadaveric specimens. It’s been fantastic to have access to such equipment and expertise without which this research wouldn’t have been possible. It’s vital to the centre to have collaboration from clinical partners at the conception of a research project to ensure a long-term view of patient application as well as clinical training.  

Dr Bart Bolsterlee. and Dr Eleonore Bolle are project leaders on research into ‘Biomechanical characteristics of the human supraspinatus tendon in vivo under physiological loading.’ this has progressed well with updates given at the 2023 symposium. Project co-investigators include Dr Freek Hollman, Miss Yilan (Olivia) Zhang Miss Asawari P., and Miss Sepideh Shemshad Industry mentors: Prof. Lynne Bilston (University of New South Wales) and Adj. Prof. Ken Cutbush Doctor at Dr Kenneth Cutbush Shoulder Clinic.  

The project aims to understand the mechanical load the tendon experiences under normal loading conditions by developing a computational framework that can estimate stresses and strains in the human supraspinatus tendon (SPT) under physiological loading conditions in vivo. This information is currently a gap within the literature, due to the difficulty in measuring tendon loading in living humans, however, once an anatomically/physiological model is attained the predictive outcomes of recovery from shoulder joint surgery will help improve the ~21% (after two years) Re-tear rates of Rotator cuff tendons, improving quality of life.  

The stage approach is first to determine the linear and viscoelastic mechanical properties of human SPT ex vivo. Then measure SPT strain and muscle activation under physiological loading conditions in humans in vivo. Finally, develop and validate a finite element model of the SPT muscle-tendon complex. 

There are positive initial results towards the development of a computational framework that integrates ex vivo and in vivo data to simulate muscle-tendon mechanics. This will further the research on tendons aligning with the centre’s goals of high-quality collaborative research outputs and developing transformational technologies to improve patient care.  

On behalf of Dr Bart Bolsterlee. Dr Eleonore Bolle and Dr Dermot O’Rourke, the seed projects initial results look promising with fantastic progress and published findings still to come.  

QLD Chapter of the BIOTech Futures Competition: Masked for Success 

QLD Chapter of the BIOTech Futures Competition: Masked for Success 

Following the success of the inaugural QLD BIOTech Futures Challenge in 2022, the ARC Training Centre for Joint Biomechanics hosted the QLD BIOTech Futures Challenge again in 2023 as one of its premier highschool engagement events for the year on the 23rd of July, 2023.
The BIOTech Futures Competition is an innovation and mentorship program aiming to empower young talents by connecting high school students with world-class academics to think about scientific solutions to some significant challenges in the fields of health, medicine, sustainability, humanitarian aid and environment. Mentors were tasked with supporting a group of high school students to research current problems and produce a solution such as a product/device, treatment, technique or method.  
12 teams from 7 schools (Stretton State College, Mansfield State High School, Earnshaw State College, Queensland Academy for Science Mathematics and Technology (QASMT), Mabel Park State High School, Rochedale State High School, Stuartholme School) attended the program with 40 students, 60% of which were girls which was an outstanding result to support the development of young women in STEM. Each team was paired with 14 mentors working over several weeks to define a research question/gap, brainstorm potential solutions, research and finally present a report, prototype and pitch that explained their innovative solution. 

Congratulations to the winning team from the Queensland Academy for Science Mathematics and Technology (QASMT) on their idea of “An All-In-One disposable mask that administers antiviral RNA medicine nano-nebulization.”   
The centre would also like to thank the panel of judges for your time; Dr Robyn Stokes, Peter Pivonka, and Monica Russell. Further thanks to Mr Yohaann Ghosh past BIOTech Futures chair for his event welcome, Mr Luke Hipwood as our newest QLD executive committee member, and Prof Hala Zreiqat as the founder. We also extend our thanks to mentors, Dietmar W. Hutmacher, A/Prof Saulo Martelli, Dermot O’Rourke, Dr Maxence Lavaill,  Mr Luke Hipwood, Dr Adi Idris, Dr Jessica Benitez, Miss Hannah Neuendorf, A/Prof Devakar Epari and A/Prof Zhanying Zhang. 

The Hon Paul Fletcher: Shadow Minister for Government Services and the Digital Economy Visits QUT 

On the 17th of July 2023, the ARC Training Centre for Joint Biomechanics welcomed shadow minister the Hon Paul Fletcher MP to showcase QUT’s robotics capabilities as one of the leading research centres in the world, and the leading institution at the QUT Centre for Robotics in Australia in this field.  

The Hon Paul Fletcher was “impressed with what [he] saw on [his] visit to [the] Queensland University of Technology,” and he shared his admiration of the research projects giving his seal of approval for the calibre of research coming out of QUT with “great work” in materials science, batteries, robotics, and AI including medical robotics and medical image analysis AI being undertaken at the centre. As emphasized by the QUT team, the visit presented a valuable opportunity to highlight the collaborative research efforts, whilst the minister emphasised their significance of policy development in these areas to ensure Australia remains competitive in the field. 

A noteworthy moment during the visit was the participation of centre PhD student Mr Morgan Windsor from the ARC Training Centre for Joint Biomechanics and QUT Centre for Robotics. Morgan’s presentation, titled ‘Pose Quality Prediction for Vision Guided Robotic Shoulder Arthroplasty,’ garnered attention as an example of QUT’s commitment to innovation in orthopedics. The presentation showcased Morgan’s research while underlining the importance of QUT’s role in promoting cutting-edge translational biomechanics research. 

Overall, the visit was a fantastic opportunity to showcase the current progress under program 2 at the centre (robotic assisted testing and surgery). 

ISB-JSB 2023 Fukuyo Japan Conference


Fukuyo Japan Conference: Advancing Biomechanical Knowledge through Insightful Presentations. 

The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) Conference, hosted in Fukuoka Japan, brought together renowned scholars, young researchers, and enthusiastic learners in the field of biomechanics. Among the attendees, centre postdoc Dr Maxence Lavaill and PhD student Ms Yilan Zhang (UNSW) made notable contributions, presenting their research and gaining valuable insights into advancements in upper movement structures and musculoskeletal mechanics. 

Dr Maxence Lavaill’s presentation, titled “Insights into the Different State-of-the-Art Optimisation Approaches for Solving the Shoulder Muscle Redundancy Problem,” was a significant highlight of the conference. Max provided an update on his ongoing research, shedding light on innovative optimization techniques used to address the complex issue of shoulder muscle redundancy. His presentation not only showcased his expertise, but his research offers further prospects for patient care for that struggle with muscle instability. 

Yilan Zhang presented her research on “Muscle Volumes and Movement of Arms of Human Rotator Cuff Muscles In Vivo.” Her talk delved into the intricacies of rotator cuff muscle dynamics, contributing to our understanding of human movement and the complex interplay of musculoskeletal structures during arm motion. Yilan’s presentation showcased her knowledge in the field and contributes to the growing body of work aimed at understanding complex muscle interplay. 

The conference also featured two esteemed keynote speakers, Professor Bill Sellers and Professor Julie Steele, who added a wealth of knowledge and insights to the event. Professor Bill Sellers, from the University of Manchester, is renowned for his groundbreaking work in using robotic simulation techniques to understand animal biomechanics. His presentation, “Animals as Machines: Robotic Approaches to Understanding Comparative Locomotor Mechanics,” demonstrated the application of machine learning in generating control systems that mimic the gait patterns of animals. Prof. Sellers’ work exemplifies the intersection of cutting-edge technology and biomechanics. 

Professor Julie Steele, previously associated with the University of Wollongong, presented “Pioneering Women of ISB: Tales from the Archive and Beyond.” Her research has explored various aspects of biomechanics, from lower limb injuries due to high-impact landings to innovative wearable technologies for health applications. Additionally, her work has examined the effects of obesity, ageing, and occupational loading on lower limb structure and function, all with the aim of enhancing the quality of life. With a remarkable career marked by over 200 journal publications, Professor Steele’s insights and clear communication left a lasting impression on all attendees. 

The ISB Fukuyo Japan Conference served as a significant platform for knowledge exchange, fostering a spirit of collaboration and innovation in the field of biomechanics. It exemplified how the collective efforts of researchers and scholars continue to push the boundaries of what we know and challenge us to think beyond the conventional limits of Biomechanics. It was a privilege for all attendees to gain insights from these remarkable presentations and to be part of this dynamic academic exchange. Overall, the team had a fantastic time meeting their international peers and networking with experts in the field of biomechanics for future innovative collaborations that transform orthopaedic techniques and outcomes.  

OpenSim Workshop

🌟 Another successful workshop on OpenSim at the QUT (Queensland University of Technology) ! 🌟 
The team had the privilege of attending an incredible workshop on OpenSim ( yesterday, skillfully led by Dr. Taylor Dick (UQ), James Williamson (UQ) and Dr Maxence Lavaill (QUT) on 8th July, 2023. 
Dr. Dick’s expertise and passion for OpenSim were evident throughout the workshop. The technical teachings covered a wide range of topics, providing a comprehensive understanding of this powerful #simulation software. We delved into the intricacies of creating #musculoskeletal models, customizing simulations, and conducting #motion analysis. It was truly a hands-on experience that allowed the team to gain practical skills in using OpenSim effectively. 
One of the highlights of the workshop was learning about OpenSim’s capability to perform dynamic simulations and predict the movement of complex human systems. Dr. Taylor Dick skillfully guided us through the process of analyzing muscle forces and joint loads, enabling us to gain insights into the biomechanics of human movement. This knowledge has immense potential for optimizing athletic performance, designing rehabilitation programs, and even advancing the field of robotics. 
Another exciting aspect of the workshop was the opportunity to explore OpenSim’s integration with other software tools and technologies. We learned how to incorporate motion capture data, electromyography signals, and even neural control models into our simulations. This interdisciplinary approach opens up countless possibilities for research and innovation, fostering collaborations across diverse fields. 
The outcomes of this workshop were truly remarkable. By the end of the day, participants had not only acquired a solid foundation in OpenSim but also gained practical skills that they can immediately apply in their respective fields. The workshop fostered a sense of community, with attendees sharing ideas, insights, and potential avenues for future collaboration. 
Thank-you Dr. Taylor Dick and James Williamson for sharing your expertise and hosting this workshop. The event was a testament to the commitment of both institutions to advancing research and education in the field of biomechanics and simulation. We are excited to see the ripple effects of this workshop as participants go on to leverage OpenSim’s capabilities in their work and contribute to the growth of this field. 
Stay curious, keep learning, and let’s push the boundaries of biomechanics together! 💪💻🚀 

Dr Taylor Dick is a Senior Lecturer in The School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Queensland, Australia and Group Leader of the Neuromuscular Biomechanics Lab. She was awarded her PhD in 2016 from Simon Fraser University (Vancouver, Canada). Her PhD research, in partnership with the Concord Field Station at Harvard University, focused on developing an experimental and modelling framework to predict in vivo motor function using advanced image-driven musculoskeletal models. Following this, she conducted a Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering at North Carolina State University. She has implemented innovative imaging approaches to discover how humans recover from unexpected perturbations during movement, which provided critical biological insight for the design of robotic devices capable of assisting movement in real-world environments.  

Mr James Williamson is a senior PhD student in the Neuromuscular Biomechanics Research Group (UQ) and a 2021 QDSA HDR grant alumni. The overall aim of his work is to explore the influence of passive ankle exoskeletons on the neuromechanics of movement in real-world conditions. James uses OpenSim as tool to investigate lower-limb kinematics and mechanical energetics during a variety of tasks with and without passive ankle exoskeleton assistance. 

In this workshop, we will showcase how you can use musculoskeletal models in combination with movement analysis data to address research questions broadly focused on human biomechanics. Through a combination of mini lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on examples, we will introduce workshop participants to the OpenSim environment; showcase how to navigate the OpenSim environment and how to get files ‘OpenSim-ready’.  

Participants can expect to gain hands-on experience in scaling generic musculoskeletal models to create subject-specific geometries, and in combining experimental data from 3D motion capture and reaction forces within inverse kinematics and inverse dynamics analysis frameworks. Although this is a beginner workshop, we will focus on emphasizing best practices, troubleshooting, and what’s happening “under the hood” as these are key ingredients to successful modelling and simulation of human movement. 

Cross-Campus Engagement: UQ Team Visit

Exciting day for the centre: We had the pleasure of visiting our esteemed colleagues in program 3, specializing in bioengineered tissue scaffolds, at The The University of Queensland for a captivating lab tour and team meeting. 
Within the P2 lab of the Andrew N. Liveris building, which serves as the home of the School of Chemical Engineering, we were warmly received by Prof Justin Cooper-White, Prof Lisbeth Grondahl, Dr Eleonore Bolle, and our talented PhD students Asawari P.Stephanie Michelena, and Sepideh Shemshad. They graciously shared their wealth of knowledge and showcased the remarkable technology and facilities they employ in their research. 
During the visit, we were introduced to their impressive tissue quarantining areas, where rigorous protocols ensure the integrity and safety of the biological samples. The team also demonstrated their state-of-the-art #microscopy equipment, which aids in #tissue staining and identification, allowing for detailed analysis and characterization. 
Furthermore, we had the privilege of witnessing their cutting-edge 3D printing capabilities, an essential tool in the development of bioengineered tissue scaffolds. This technology enables precise and tailored designs, where #meltelectrowiring (MEW) is used to develop scaffolds for #rotatorcuff repair. 
Additionally, we explored their Malvern particle size analyzer equipment, which plays a crucial role in assessing the physical properties of materials used in scaffold construction. Understanding particle size distribution is vital for achieving optimal cell attachment and development, pushing the boundaries of #tissueengineering
At the team meeting, surgical fellow Dr Mohammad Jomaa presented his research on the challenges of ‘Referencing the forearm in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.’ Dr Maxence Lavaill then presented some of his upcoming work for the International Society of Biomechanics conference on ‘Insights into the different state-of-the-art optimisation methods for solving the shoulder muscle redundancy problem.’ 
Thank you to the entire team at The University of Queensland for their warm hospitality and valuable insights. We look forward to future collaborations and the continued advancement of joint biomechanics research! 

Training Centre for Joint Biomechanics Welcomes Balmoral SHS Interns

Training the next generation of researchers 

June 19-23, 2023

From the 19th – 23rd of June 2023 we hosted students Miss Mia McGrath and Miss Tahlia Ryder from Balmoral State High School, to gain insight into the Biomechanics field and work alongside our PhD students and academics.  

Through their mentors PhD students Mr Giacomo Nardese, and Mr Arthur Fabre, and 4 program leader, A/Prof Graham Kerr, both Mia and Tahlia had the opportunity to delve into a wide array of activities, gaining invaluable skills In Mimics software and algorithms to create pre-operative patient plans for orthopaedic surgery, a fascinating and crucial aspect of modern medical practices. They also viewed the GAIT Lab used for industry-focused assessment of implant biomechanical performance as an interesting to showcase industry and research testing process.  

These eager students have been actively involved in various projects, such as implant testing, where they have witnessed first hand the cutting-edge advancements in this field. Additionally, they have been using the VICON motion capture software, exploring its applications in our innovative rehabilitation programs in Program 4. They have been able to witness how technology and precise motion tracking can significantly impact the lives of those undergoing rehabilitation. 

As the centre is dedicated to developing the ability of students interested in biomechanics, it’s fantastic the centre has strong connections with secondary schools, as these opportunities are rare for high schoolers to engage in research at a higher level.   

It’s inspiring to see the level of enthusiasm Mia and Tahlia have displayed interest in both practical and theoretical knowledge, as well as immersing themselves in hands-on activities. We are incredibly proud to have Mia and Tahlia as part of our team, and we’re confident that they have a bright future ahead in the world of biomechanics and engineering. 

Logemas x ARC ITTC JB: Vicon/Vero Training

Industry Training sets Centre Students Apart: Logemas Vicon/Vero Workshop – 6/6/2023 

On Tuesday the 6 of June Dr Denny Wells and Scott Brennan from Logemas delivered a workshop on basic and advanced skills in VICON for the centre students at the Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation (QUT, Kelvin Grove campus). 

Logemas is Australia’s foremost motion capture and measurement technology company, which in collaboration with the centre is working to assess the neuromechanical function of upper limbs in pre-surgical and post-surgical populations, develop new wearable technologies for optimizing functional movement, and develop VR technologies for rehabilitation. 
VICON software is a market-leading motion capture tool with accurate algorithms and robust real time tracking of movements from marker data. The tool is essential to the work of the centre under Program 4, led by Prof Graham Kerr with support from postdoc Wolbert Van Den Hoorn, for in vivo assessment of upper limb movements, physiology and rehabilitation as we capture movement data and assess range-of-motion from different patient cohorts. 
Photo: Centre PhD student Mr Francois Bruyer Monteleone positions himself in front of the motion-capture cameras to explore more complex models available in Nexus and to help calibrate different skeleton models for different data sets. 

The software works by an estimated 3D human pose from multiple synchronized 2D camera views using deep learning algorithms to capture movement effectively. This is a contrast to Traditional motion capture systems require attaching markers to specific points on the body, which can be time-consuming and restrictive. The developments from Logemas and Dr Denny Wells with markerless motion capture technology eliminate the need for physical markers, allowing for a more streamlined and intuitive approach to capturing movement with his talk ‘A Practical Guide to Markerless Motion Capture’ respectively.’ 

The basic workshop covered the system configuration set up needed for capturing data. It also detailed the system hardware from the camera all the way through to the software interface. With a focus on how to set up the system for optimal calibration and reconstruction of marker data. It further covered some of the most common problems encountered in Nexus and how to resolve the problem (Troubleshooting FAQ).  

The Advanced workshop went into depth on icon Nexus which has a wide range of analysis features available. This showcased more complex models available in Nexus (CGM2 / SCoRE SARA) encouraging participants from the centre to customise skeletons of their own projects. This facilitated focused learning of software that could be used directly on research and provided the opportunity to ask questions on specific functions from the experts.  

The workshop also explained the integration of other analysis platforms such as Matlab and cover IMU sensor integration with Vicon. Matlab, being widely used at the centre and within the field, was incredibly valuable to learn integration methods for biomechanics research.  

Overall the centre Highly values the partnership with Logemas to deliver exceptional training and development opportunities to ensure our students are industry ready. 

The centre is proud to announce several projects at the centre use Logemas’ technology as their preferred motion capture methods: 

Program 4: In vivo assessment of upper limb movements, physiology and rehabilitation 

4 projects 

  • Arthur Fabre’s PhD entitled ‘A Wearable Magneto-Inertial Measurement Units-Based System for the Upper Limb and Shoulder Kinematics Assessment,’ specifically his research tasks on developing and validating IMUs, and creating a database of IMU / Vicon 3D / Shoulder muscle EMG for upper limb movement. 
  • Giacomo Nardese’s PhD entitled ‘Neurophysiological adaptations to shoulder injuries: cortical function of shoulder muscles and motor control implications’ work on brain muscle interactions during upper limb movements. 
  • Eric Su (postdoc’s) work on understanding role of shoulder muscle afferents in controlling upper limb movements. 
  • Zimmer Mymobility project, CI: Dr Wolbert van den Hoorn 

Program 1: in silico upper extremity modelling and simulation 

2 projects:

(1) PhD project ‘Investigation on patient-specific features of shoulder MSK modelling. Study of an MRI-based EMG-driven model’  (completed early 2023) on shoulder musculoskeletal modelling using personalised shoulder kinematics and EMG data, with 3 publications published: 

  • Lavaill, M., Martelli, S., Gilliland, L., Gupta, A., Kerr, G., & Pivonka, P. (2022). The effects of anatomical errors on shoulder kinematics computed using multi-body models. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 21(5), 1561–1572. 
  • Lavaill, M., Martelli, S., Kerr, G. K., & Pivonka, P. (2022). Statistical Quantification of the Effects of Marker Misplacement and Soft-Tissue Artifact on Shoulder Kinematics and Kinetics. Life, 12(6), 1–11. 
  • Lavaill, M., Martelli, S., Cutbush, K., Gupta, A., Kerr, G. K., & Pivonka, P. (2023). Latarjet’s muscular alterations increase glenohumeral joint stability : A theoretical study. Journal of Biomechanics, 155(May), 111639. 

(2) Ultrasound precision tracking (seed grant project), CI: Dr Dermot O’Rourke 

And we look forward to further collaboration and training opportunities with the Logemas team in 2024.  

PhD Student Morgan Windsor Presents Groundbreaking Robotic Shoulder Arthroplasty Research at ICRA: Paving the Way for Proactive Localisation Systems

Centre PhD student, Mr. Morgan Windsor, is making waves in the world of medical robotics as he proudly presented his poster titled ‘Post Quality Prediction for Vision Guided Robotic Shoulder Arthroplasty’ at the International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) in London from May 29 to June 2. With over 4,000 attendees, Windsor is set to expand his connections and engage with the very best and emerging leaders in the field of medical robotics.

Windsor’s work, the first paper to emerge from program 2 at the centre, titled “Forward Prediction of Target Localisation Failure Through Pose Estimation Artefact Modelling,” is a groundbreaking contribution to the realm of orthopaedic surgical robots. These robots hold the promise of significantly improving patient outcomes by ensuring more accurate and repeatable procedures, assisting surgeons in translating patient-specific plans into precise execution.

A critical challenge in this field revolves around ensuring trustworthy localisation—identifying the precise location of target bones relative to the robot and determining the accuracy of the estimate for the given task. Previous methods have focused on identifying underperformance or failure as it occurs or after it occurs. Windsor’s work, however, takes a proactive approach by proposing to predict where localisation failures are likely to occur. This enables a robot to anticipate and avoid potential failures, a paradigm shift in the field.

The contributors to this groundbreaking research include Morgan Windsor, Alejandro Fontan, Peter Pivonka, and a special acknowledgment to Prof. Michael Milford, Windsor’s PA, for his invaluable support throughout the project.

The research specifically addresses the challenges faced in shoulder arthroplasty, where the current “gold standard” relies on optical markers to track bones and guide robots. However, this approach interferes with the surgical workflow, and attaching markers to bones introduces potential complications. Windsor’s markerless vision-based system offers an attractive alternative, but implementing it is challenging due to the difficulty of the problem and variations in surgical conditions.

The significance of Windsor’s work lies in localisation system self-assessment, a critical aspect of transitioning away from marker-based technology. By developing the ability of vision-based guidance systems to perform self-assessment, the research aims to facilitate the move towards markerless systems that work in various surgical conditions. Localisation self-assessment provides robots with the capability to actively maintain the required level of performance and recognize situations where safe handover to a human operator is necessary.

As Mr. Morgan Windsor presents his research at ICRA, we commend his dedication and look forward to the positive impact his work will have on advancing the field of medical robotics and, ultimately, improving patient outcomes.